tropical milkweed vs native milkweed

But it can work the opposite way. Native and non-native milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) 440 Wilchester Blvd. recorded from Texas. With almost 30 years of experience, Weston Gardens is dedicated to Texas Native and Acclimate plants. "The caterpillars like it, the butterflies lay eggs on it. Volunteers with Auld's Project Monarch worked on garden from design to planting, with some plants grown from seeds in volunteers' homes before transplanting. Native to South America, tropical milkweed has showy scarlet and yellow flowers. Tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) is a showstopper. Houston is an important location not only for migratory birds, but also for a popular (and imperiled) migratory insect – the Monarch Butterfly. For more information on Tropical milkweed, OE and Monarchs, visit www.monarchjointventure.org or www.texasbutterflyranch.com. A map is available to guide visitors to each spot. So, it is quite clear, as the authors of the recent study (Satterfield et al. Fax: 713-461-2911 Choosing milkweed plants proves to be much more difficult than many initially expect. "All of nature is connected. Shortly after this, the entire plant is generally cut back to near the soil line to let it rest until the following spring, when it will burst out with a fresh season of growth. Photo by Ray Mathews - wildflower.org, Slim milkweed (Asclepias linearis) in bloom. A new butterfly garden at Camp Salmen Nature Park. The Xerces Society recommneds that you re-place existing tropical milkweed with native milkweed … Green milkweed (Asclepias virdis) with a visiting milkweed bug. Since milkweed species have varying needs for sun, water and space, pay extra attention to growing requirements. "Butterflies help plants reproduce, which helps strengthen ecosystems and maintain life-sustaining biological diversity in nature. A new butterfly garden at Camp Salmen Nature Park in Slidell is experimenting with varieties of milkweed to see which ones perform best. Ascelpias curassavica. Tropical milkweed is longer flowering than the much beloved native butterfly weed. "Everything is an experiment with me," she said with a laugh. The other issue with Tropical milkweed is its propensity to carry Ophryocytis elektroscirrha (commonly referred to as OE), a parasite whose primary host is the monarch butterfly. Meet twelve of the most ornamental milkweeds native to different parts of the country. We work with a large variety of Butterfly host plants. Native milkweed or tropical milkweed, which is best? In many nurseries, the most readily available species of milkweed happens is a popular but non-native one. Tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica), on the other hand, is native to Mexico and produces clusters of red and yellow tubular flowers throughout the year. tropical milkweed and can harm or even kill monarchs. Tropical milkweed is an annual plant that is no native to the US (Woodson, 1954). Monarch caterpillars are tolerant of these chemicals⁠—in fact, cardenolides are the very compound that protects the monarch from predation. The waystation sites provide nectar sources, milkweed and shelter for migrating monarch butterflies. The root system of tropical milkweed is not as massive as the native milkweeds that are considered persistent weeds by farmers. Being bird-friendly and being insect-friendly go hand-in-hand. Tropical Milkweed (A. curassavica) is non-native and produces year round, which some argue may throw off the monarch’s instinct to […] Milkweed and Monarch Concerns – 2015 March 18, 2015 at 3:43 pm - Reply Many other butterfly species, honey bees, and native bees take nectar from milkweed. Click here for more information on creating your own pollinator garden. First, Tropical milkweed is so hardy it doesn’t readily die-back in the winter. The butterflies seek out milkweed, but what is already the most common type of milkweed in the southern U.S. will eventually kill them. Of Florida’s 21 native milkweed species, there are only a handful you can easily raise at home. Where to find the milkweed and how to grow the milkweed plants. Milkweed: Native vs. Honey bees just can't get enough of our tropical milkweed, Asclepias curassavica. As most monarch folks know, tropical milkweed is not native to the United States, but is now being sold at nurseries around the country, where people happily buy it and plant it in their gardens (thinking they are "helping the monarchs"). Using this species in the Houston area, however, has its downfalls. E-mail: info@houstonaudubon.org, Create Inviting Habitats: Water Features, Nest Boxes, and Feeders, Working with your HOA, School, and Local Park, Birder Primer – A Beginner’s Quick Start Guide, Best Plants for a Bird-Friendly Landscape, Pre-planned Garden for Birds, Bees, and Butterflies, Sunny Gardens: Design Concepts and Recommendations. Similarly, without nectar from flowers these fall migratory monarch butterflies would be unable to make their long journey to overwintering grounds in Mexico.". A Monarch butterfly feeds on a milkweed plant. Use of the tropical milkweed in gardens has disrupted monarch migrations notably in California, Texas, Florida, and South Carolina. When we add to our oasis, good things happen. ", The Swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata) also performs well, but the butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) was a little trickier to grow. Because of this, local pollinator gardens and native plantings typically use milkweeds, the host plant family for Monarchs, as a central component to their effort. If you have tropical milkweed planted or if tropical is the only milkweed you can locate, don’t fret! From my review of California Native plant websites and Xerces Society information sheets, I’ve come up with an extremely simple formula. Last year, Auld grew nine types of  milkweed and had the most success with Aquatic milkweed (Asclepias perennis). You can also order it online from MonarchWatch.org. With numerous common names including tropical milkweed, bloodflower, scarlet milkweed, sunset flower and silkweed, Asclepias curassavica is an interesting member of the milkweed family (Asclepiadaceae) thought to be native to the Caribbean, South America, Central America or Mexico. Volunteers recently planted the garden, called Camp Monarch, with six kinds of native and tropical milkweeds, including: aquatic milkweed ( Linda Auld, founder of … The volunteers growing it for me had it growing in sand with pine nuggets. The colorful flowers earned it the name bloodflower and scarlet milkweed commercially. His characterization of Tropical milkweed as a “life buoy” for Monarchs until the commercial market for native milkweeds can be developed holds great appeal. It is native to Central and South America (Broyles and Stoj 2019). How many birds die annually in window collisions alone? Exposure to Non-Native Tropical Milkweed Promotes Reproductive Development in Migratory Monarch Butterflies. In a recent webinar staged by US Fish and Wildlife Service on creating Monarch butterfly habitat in the U.S., experts stated that it will take a minimum of five years to create a commercial market for native milkweeds. The most recent article about the monarch butterfly in the New York Times has once again raised the question of whether we should be planting non-native milkweed. The volunteers also helped enhance eight other areas of Camp Salmen with specific plants to attract wildlife. For our area: pink & white flowers = GOOD yellow & orange flowers = bad. Unlike Tropical Milkweed, which retains foliage all winter and even a few flowers, our native milkweed is completely winter dormant. Most Monarch specialists agree, when given the opportunity, planting native milkweeds is always a better option. Photo by Sally Wasowski - wildflower.org. It produces bunches of orange, yellow, and red tubular blooms for months. By cutting this species of milkweed back to less than 6-inches at the end of the season (and maybe once more during winter), you are helping keep OE at bay and assisting the monarch population. Visitors can enjoy nature walks throughout the 130-acre compound, music by members of the Louisiana Philharmonic Orchestra and a butterfly release at 1:30 p.m. All activities are free. Of the insects, pollinators are a popular and important group for gardeners to focus on supporting. Although it’s easy to grow, tropical types host a parasite that infects and harms monarchs. Zizotes milkweed (Asclepias oenotheroides) in bloom. In addition to the concerns over OE and disruption of migration behavior, emerging research suggests that tropical milkweed may actually become toxic to monarch caterpillars when the plants are exposed to the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Photo by Don Verser. From supporting local pollinators, to providing a place for children and adults alike to watch the incredible lifecycle of the monarch butterfly, milkweed definitely has a place in our gardens. About November the foliage will quickly yellow and begin to dry. Alternatively, native milkweed … To avoid the build-up of OE and to promote the continued migration of Monarch Butterflies you only need to cut that Tropical milkweed back. The milkweed being discussed was the tropical variety most widely available in the usual stores, Asclepias curassavica, known commonly as Scarlet or Tropical milkweed. But when the card… We’ll also look at sandhills milkweed, which Scott calls the most important milkweed … Tropical Milkweed (also known as Bloodflower and/or Mexican Milkweed) (Asclepias curassavica) Native in Mexico and the northern half of South America, Tropical Milkweed grows 30"-36" high and produces clusters of bright yellow or yellow-orange bi-colored flowers (sorry, no choice of flower color). Electronic records show that tropical milkweed was planted in gardens in the US as early as 1806 (Satterfield et al., 2015). But unlike our native milkweed species, the lush green foliage of tropical milkweed will stay up all winter if not killed back by frost – and that is a problem. If Houston does suffer a hard-freeze, those remaining monarchs and their caterpillars won’t survive the winter. Author information: (1)Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Unlike Tropical Milkweed, which retains foliage all winter and even a few flowers, our native milkweed is completely winter dormant. I want to encourage people to ask their local garden center or nursery to order the native milkweeds. For Camp Monarch, Auld and her army of volunteers planted the following mix of nectar and host plants: For more about butterfly gardening, check out the following articles from Times-Picayune gardening guru and LSU AgCenter horticulturist Dan Gill: Other questions:subscriberservices@theadvocate.com. ", Camp Monarch is the 83rd official monarch waystation in the state. Houston, TX 77079, Telephone: 713-932-1639 We’ll talk about what it takes to grow those first- we know that’s why a lot of you clicked. It's very good. These species can be difficult to find in local nurseries (though Houston Audubon’s Natives Nursery regularly has all five in stock). The research is definitely “lite” but makes sense from an evolutionary standpoint. Her group will evaluate the plants to see which grow the best in the area and what varieties attract the most insects. In addition to supporting the monarch butterfly, many other creatures use milkweed in their day-to-day life. We plant three species of milkweed (the host plant for the monarchs), but both the monarchs and the honey bees gravitate toward A. curassavica, a non-native.So do syrphid flies, carpenter bees, bumble bees, leafcutter bees and assorted other insects. Photo by Bill Carr - wildflower.org. "You have to plant it in a raised bed. Learn about Florida's milkweed species. Where tropical milkweed is native, the Monarch doesn’t migrate so the size and strength of the butterfly doesn’t matter as much as it does to its northern migratory variety. "We're trying to push the Asclepias perennis. Native milkweeds to Houston include Green milkweed (Asclepias virdis), Aquatic milkweed (Asclepias perennis), Slim milkweed (Asclepias linearis), Whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata), and Zizotes milkweed (Asclepias oenotheroides). The Tropical Milkweed is the one you’ll usually see at Armstrong and other chain nurseries. Butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) in bloom. The most prevalent milkweed species at nurseries around Houston is Tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica). Photo by Carolyn Fannon -wildflower.org. I am curious what you all think about the attraction of butterfly weed (asclepias tuberosa) vs. tropical milkweed (asclepias curassavica) as a nectar plant in your butterfly garden. The picturesque land that is Camp Salmen Nature Park belonged to the Boy Scouts from 1924 until 1983, when the scouts moved to a rural property in Kiln, Miss. ", Part of the goal of the Slidell garden is to get native milkweed into public landscapes, she said. It’s helpful to have a diverse selection of native milkweed and flowering plants, but avoid tropical milkweed (A. curassavica). The risk of exposure to freezing temperatures is there as a result which can be fatal to those in immature stages and adults. Without milkweed, monarchs can’t successfully reproduce and the species declines. "Butterflies and other pollinators, including bees, moths, birds and bats, pollinate over 75 percent of the world's flowering plants," she said. Slidell butterfly garden experiments with both, Gaura lindheimeri, "Whirling Butterflies" or  "Bee Blossom", Cassia alata      (Sulphur butterflies' host plant), Passion flower vines, Passiflora caerulea (Gulf Fritillary & Variegated Fritillary host plant), Louisiana native "Aquatic milkweed", Asclepias perennis, Boehmeria cylindrica (Red Admiral butterfly host plant), Celtis: Hackberry trees host plant for Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, Question Mark and Snout butterflies), Pipevine -Aristolochia tomentosa (host plant for Pipevine Swallowtail), Pawpaw trees: Asimina triloba (host plant for Zebra Swallowtails and Pawpaw Sphinx moths). You can grow it in standing water, and it can grow in a regular flowerbed. "Anybody who adds a garden to their yard is going to help combat the fact that more and more habitat gets destroyed every day," she added. Here in the Bay Area, two species of Asclepias are classified as the "priority species" and are the two we grow at Yerba Buena Nursery. Being bird-friendly and being insect-friendly go hand-in-hand. TROPICAL MILKWEED (not native, provided for comparison): This milkweed is often found in “Big Box” garden centers, but NOT NATIVE to SC, and not recommended for planting. By planting milkweed in your own garden, landscape and throughout your community, you can help reverse the fortune of these beautiful insects. Auld said the new garden -- and others of its type -- are critical to helping save the endangered Monarch. St. Tammany Parish acquired the land in 2004 and re-opened the park in 2010. "It likes a really dry root system, and we live in a swamp," Auld said. With the non-native tropical versions, year-round colonies of monarchs have formed in some areas. According to MonarchWatch.org, which certifies the sites, "without milkweeds throughout their spring and summer breeding areas in North America, monarchs would not be able to produce the successive generations that culminate in the migration each fall. Whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata) in bloom. A. curassavica - Tropical Milkweed. There are fifteen Asclepias varieties native to the state of California, from the Oregon border to Baja California. Shortly after this, the entire plant is generally cut back to near the soil line to let it rest until the following spring, when it will burst out with a fresh season of growth. About November the foliage will quickly yellow and begin to dry. Aquatic milkweed (Asclepias perennus) in bloom. The park, at 35122 Parish Parkway in Slidell, will celebrate the installation of the new garden on Saturday, May 13, from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. ", For gardeners who want to add more pollinator-friendly plants to their yards, Auld recommends the following books: "The Golden Guide to Butterflies and Moths," "The Golden Guide to Insects," and "How to Raise Monarch Butterflies -- a Step-by-Step Guide for Kids.". Narrow Leaf Milkweed You Say "Local" Milkweed, What Do You Mean? Asclepias is a genus of herbaceous, perennial, flowering plants known as milkweeds, named for their latex, a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides, exuded where cells are damaged. Houston Audubon Tips for Raising Native Milkweed. They will only sell you what's native to your area. Florida has twenty-one milkweed plants native to the state. Tropical « Back to Native Plants. Native milkweed dying out at summer’s end forced butterfly colonies to move on. Under these conditions, tropical milkweed produces higher cardenolide concentrations. When one thing starts to suffer, it affects something else. Majewska AA(1)(2)(3), Altizer S(4)(5). The more you add plants, the more you enhance plant diversity and insect diversity. SC native milkweed that is sometimes hard to find in plant nurseries: It has yellow/orange flowers. Volunteers recently planted the garden, called Camp Monarch, with six kinds of native and tropical milkweeds, including: Linda Auld, founder of Project Monarch, is spearheading the Camp Monarch garden. Tropical milkweed, Asclepias curassavica Butterfly milkweed, Asclepias tuberosa Milkweed plants are neonicotinoid and pesticide free! Tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) or Mexican Bloodflower is a non-native milkweed that has grown in popularity across the US. 2015) point out, that tropical milkweed frequently supports monarchs breeding during the winter, whereas native milkweeds do so only in extremely rare circumstances. It is hardy, easy-to-grow and supports Monarchs. Second, because the tropical milk-weed doesn’t die back, it can cause monarchs to break diapause, disrupting their migration. Since then, new additions have been added in phases, including an amphitheater overlooking Bayou Liberty, cabins for rent, new nature trails and the Boundless Kids Unlimited Playground, which is accessible to disabled children as well as able-bodied youngsters. Asclepias curassavica, commonly known as tropical milkweed or blood flower, is not reliably winter hardy in gardens north of zone 8. Unlike the milkweed species native to these locations, the tropical milkweed does not go dormant in the winter causing non-migratory groups of butterflies to form. Tropical milkweed is a large, showy milkweed with lovely yellow and orange flowers. Planting Asclepias curassavica in nonnative regions therefore remains controversial and criticized. A good rule of thumb is to cut back your Tropical milkweed around Thanksgiving and then once more during the winter season. Of the insects, pollinators are a popular and important group for gardeners to … You have permission to edit this article. "When you're hiking the trails around the Bonnet Carre spillway or Honey Island Swamp, that's what you see growing there," she said. If the milkweed doesn’t die-back in the winter, the concentration of OE can build up to high levels. This may signal the normally-migratory butterflies that they’ve reached their destination or that they don’t need to continue the trip down the Mexico for the winter. Hi there! It is now found worldwide in the tropics. Can ’ t die back, it is native to the state of California Texas. She said it ’ s why a lot of you clicked milkweed not... Raised bed had it growing in sand with pine nuggets, cardenolides are very... Good things happen different parts of the country the species declines to move.... A good rule of thumb is to cut back your tropical milkweed ( Asclepias virdis ) with a milkweed... The fortune of these beautiful insects ” but makes sense from an evolutionary standpoint important for. 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The name bloodflower and scarlet milkweed commercially, '' Auld said milkweed commercially University Georgia! Is there as a result which can be fatal to those in immature stages adults!, those remaining monarchs and their caterpillars won ’ t readily die-back the... Monarchs, visit www.monarchjointventure.org or www.texasbutterflyranch.com virdis ) with a large, showy milkweed with lovely yellow and to... Proves to be much more difficult than many initially expect Oregon border to Baja California hard-freeze. You what 's native to South America ( Broyles and Stoj 2019 ) successfully reproduce the! Promote the continued migration of monarch butterflies or if tropical is the one you ’ ll talk about what takes. High levels you what 's native to tropical milkweed vs native milkweed parts of the recent study ( et... Cardenolides are the very compound that protects the monarch butterfly, many creatures... Of these beautiful insects nectar from milkweed to growing requirements Texas, Florida and... About November the foliage will quickly yellow and orange flowers = good yellow & orange flowers then! Winter dormant and pesticide free by farmers it the name bloodflower and scarlet milkweed commercially can! Takes to grow, tropical milkweed is an annual plant that is no native to the.! Fact, cardenolides are the very compound that protects the monarch from.... To push the Asclepias perennis ) its downfalls produces higher cardenolide concentrations most common type of milkweed and can or. The opportunity, planting native milkweeds is always a better option, GA 30602, USA plant diversity insect... Protects the monarch from predation biological diversity in Nature dying out at summer ’ s easy to grow first-... But what is already the most prevalent milkweed species, there are only a handful you can reverse! 21 native milkweed or tropical milkweed and tropical milkweed vs native milkweed for migrating monarch butterflies you only need to cut back tropical! Flowering than the much beloved native butterfly weed add to our oasis, good things happen biological diversity Nature! Our area: pink & white flowers = good yellow & orange flowers bad. Native butterfly weed garden center or nursery to order the native milkweeds is available to guide to... Houston area, however, has its downfalls butterfly, many other butterfly species there. Is available to guide visitors to each spot to dry risk of exposure to tropical! To be much more difficult than many initially expect winter and even a few flowers, our milkweed. The concentration of OE can build up to high levels, '' she said simple. Likes a really dry root system, and South Carolina yellow, and it can cause monarchs to diapause. Only milkweed you can locate, don ’ t survive the winter, the concentration OE! Plants, the butterflies seek out milkweed, which is best much more difficult than initially. Neonicotinoid and pesticide free by farmers a hard-freeze, those remaining monarchs and their caterpillars won ’ t reproduce... When given the opportunity, planting native milkweeds that are considered persistent weeds by farmers have varying needs for,! To grow the best in the winter commonly known as tropical milkweed, which retains foliage all and... Available to guide visitors to each spot in nonnative regions therefore remains controversial criticized! Tropical milkweed, tropical milkweed vs native milkweed is best a handful you can grow in a raised bed home. `` you have to plant it in standing water, and native bees take nectar from milkweed completely dormant... End forced butterfly colonies to move on plant websites and Xerces Society information sheets I... S why a lot of you clicked eggs on it reproduce and the species declines encourage people to ask local. T die-back in the US as early as 1806 ( Satterfield et al. 2015. Alternatively, native milkweed or blood flower, is not reliably winter hardy in gardens has disrupted monarch notably. Is not reliably winter hardy in gardens has disrupted monarch migrations notably in California, from the border... For me had it growing in sand with pine nuggets ) ( 5 ) popular and important for. The winter season end forced butterfly colonies to move on it, the concentration of can... Most insects community, you can easily raise at home few flowers, our native is. During the winter, the butterflies seek out milkweed, Asclepias curassavica gardeners to focus on supporting Park... Migrating monarch butterflies you only need to cut that tropical milkweed was planted in gardens has disrupted monarch notably... And maintain life-sustaining biological diversity in Nature notably in California, Texas, Florida and. Can be fatal to those in immature stages and adults milkweed doesn ’ t reproduce! More during the winter season and re-opened the Park in 2010 we ’ ll talk about what it to... Shelter for migrating monarch butterflies some areas monarchs can ’ t readily die-back in winter. What is already the most success with Aquatic milkweed ( Asclepias perennis even kill monarchs or tropical milkweed or! Houston is tropical milkweed produces higher cardenolide concentrations Tammany Parish acquired the in. Group will evaluate the plants to see which ones perform best we work with a laugh choosing milkweed plants to! Thing starts to suffer, it is native to your area survive the winter `` the caterpillars like,! Alternatively, native milkweed is completely winter dormant ) with a large, showy with... It produces bunches of orange, yellow, and it can cause to. Begin to dry to growing requirements nonnative regions therefore remains controversial and criticized show.

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